光刻原则

力学和机电一体化

Speed and precision meet in ASML’s advanced lithography machines

Magnetically levitating wafer tables that accelerate faster than a fighter jet? Sensors that measure positioning 20,000 times per second with an accuracy of 60 picometers (less than the size of a silicon atom)? It’s all part of the extreme mechanics in ASML machines.

In the semiconductor industry, time is money. That means loading the wafer into the system, printing the pattern in almost 100 different places and then unloading the wafer as many as 275 times an hour. For that to happen, the magnetically levitating wafer tables that hold the wafer in place inside the system accelerate at up to 7 g without causing vibration or heating in key components.

Innovation in wafer stages

晶片阶段是光刻机最重要的运动部​​位融合在一起的地方 - 这是系统的机械“心脏”。在ASML光刻机中,级同时移动两个晶片表,每个晶片均保持硅晶片。虽然一个晶片暴露,但是通过机器的计量传感器测量另一个晶片的位置。这款双级系统架构被称为Twinscan,ASML于2000年首次推向市场。自介绍以来,Twinscan平台通过大规模增加生产速度,彻底改变了芯片生产的经济学。


2008年,ASML的NXT双胞胎平台带来了另一种显着提高的速度和精度。创新材料意味着更轻的晶片级,结合新型磁悬浮系统,用于移动阶段,以实现更大的加速 - 高达5克,高于喷射战斗机。同时,晶片的位置每秒测量每秒约20,000次,该传感器精确到约60微米的传感器 - 这小于硅原子的尺寸。


Robotics

机器人对我们光刻系统的整体生产率和精度进行了大量贡献。例如,称为晶片处理程序的模块在系统中加载每个晶片,而称为掩模版手柄的类似模块对每批晶片使用的掩模相同。每小时处理超过275个晶片 - 使用各种矫正器 - 意味着处理程序必须快速,精确地拾取,移动和放置精致的负载,而不会损坏或扭曲它们。

Super-speed synchronicity

As each copy of the pattern is printed on the wafer, the reticle moves smoothly through a narrow slit of light, exposing only a small part of the pattern at a time. Meanwhile, the wafer moves smoothly in the opposite direction to capture the whole pattern. The motion of the reticle and wafer must be perfectly synchronized, but because the reticle pattern is larger than the pattern on the wafer, the reticle must move much farther and faster, up to 150 meters per second squared. That’s the equivalent of a car accelerating from 0 to 100 km/h in just 0.1 seconds. The ability to synchronize the motion of wafer and reticle to the nanometer and nanosecond as they accelerate at 5 g and 15 g in opposite directions – all without causing a single vibration – is vital for producing functioning microchips.

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