光刻原则

Light and lasers

From visible blue light to invisible extreme UV light, ASML’s lithography machines keep innovation in light and lasers moving forward

什么是光波长?就像海中的波浪一样,光线作为一系列峰和槽。峰之间的距离称为波长。光的波长越短,可以在光刻过程中印刷的微芯片特征越小。

Throughout ASML’s history, we’ve supported chip manufacturers in making the transition to new lithography wavelengths that make more advanced microchips possible. Each step forward required innovation in how the light is generated, from visible blue light to ASML’s exclusive extreme ultraviolet (EUV) technology.

汞灯:从蓝色到紫外线

When ASML was founded, the state-of-the-art light source for lithography was the mercury vapor lamp. This generates light by passing electricity through a bulb that contains mercury. The current heats the mercury until it becomes a plasma that emits light of various wavelengths. The required wavelength was selected with an interference filter.


我们的第一个光刻系统使用该设置来创建具有436纳米(NM)波长的蓝光,称为汞G线。它们可以打印小至1微米(1000nm)的特点。为了实现较小的功能,我们很快就会切换到波长为365nm的不可见的紫外线(UV)光。这些以后的I线系统推动了1微米以下的特征尺寸,最终达到220nm。

的光谱图cusing on visible light.

激光和duv.

In the mid-1980s, the industry demand for smaller features led to another shift to shorter wavelengths. And this time, a whole new way of making light was needed: lasers. In particular, deep ultraviolet (DUV) excimer lasers. These lasers use mixtures of gases that don’t normally combine. However, when enough energy is applied, atoms of the two gases join together to form excited temporary molecules (excimers). The excited molecules release excess energy as light whose wavelength depends on the gases used.


KRF:DUV黎明

第一个DuV系统使用基于两个元素的组合的准分子激光器:氪和氟。这些氪 - 氟化物(KRF)激光器产生波长为248纳米(NM)的光。150 nm KRF系统从前一条I-LINE系统的280 nm缩小特征尺寸。现代KRF系统现在可以产生低至80 nm的功能。


与ARF更深入

甚至进一步进入UV频谱,下一代DuV光刻系统使用氩 - 氟化物(ARF)准分子激光器,其产生具有193nm波长的光。启用此功能尺寸为38 nm待印刷。

Creating EUV light

EUV光刻, a technology entirely unique to ASML, uses light with a wavelength of 13.5 nanometers. This wavelength is more than 14 times shorter than DUV light.

EUV光自然发生在外太空中。但要使EUV光刻可能,我们需要工程师在系统内创建这种光线。因此,我们开发了一种根本新的方法来为光刻发电。


In our laser-produced plasma (LPP) source, molten tin droplets of around 25 microns in diameter are ejected from a generator at 70 meters per second. As they fall, the droplets are hit first by a low-intensity laser pulse that flattens them into a pancake shape. Then a more powerful laser pulse vaporizes the flattened droplet to create a plasma that emits EUV light. To produce enough light to manufacture microchips, this process is repeated 50,000 times every second.

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