Lenses & mirrors

The complex optical systems in our machines reduce the image printed on a wafer to the nanometer level

当我们谈论光刻机器的镜头时,我们不会谈论单一简单的镜头。我们正在谈论由几十个个单独镜头组成的复杂光学系统,以及用于EUV光刻,镜子。

Each one must be correctly positioned to within a nanometer to ensure image quality. ASML’s innovation in lens design allows chipmakers to reduce the size of features on a microchip. Since the late 1980s, all our lithography systems have featured optics from our strategic partner ZEISS.

Numerical aperture

Lens development to improve resolution means increasing the numerical aperture (NA), a measure of how much light the lens system can collect and focus. One way to do that is by integrating higher-precision lenses and mirrors into extended optical systems. The highest NA optical systems today are over 1.2 meters high and weigh more than a metric ton. Used in DUV lithography, they have an NA of 1.35.


Immersion lithography

In 2003, ASML made an important step forward in numerical aperture. We developed immersion lithography, which allows chipmakers to print even smaller features by projecting light through a layer of water between the lens and the wafer. The water increases the numerical aperture of the systems' optics.

复杂性带来控制

The sheer complexity of today’s lithography optics makes delivering high-quality optical systems a massive engineering challenge. But it also brings a unique opportunity to control every exposure with immense precision. Thousands of actuators allow the exact position and orientation of individual lens and mirror elements to be minutely adjusted to ensure the perfect image on the wafer every time.


例如,光刻中使用的重复强烈的光脉冲使光学系统热身,这导致镜片中的扭曲。这些变化可以在Millikelvins和纳米中测量,但这仍然足以导致微芯片有缺陷。光学元件中的致动器可以主动补偿这些透镜加热效果。

EUV需要镜子

其他光刻机械使用镜片聚焦光线。但是极端紫外线(EUV)光刻没有镜头。由于大多数材料吸收EUV光,镜片将吸收系统中的光。相反,我们开发了一种全新的光学系统,在真空室内使用超光滑的多层镜。每个镜子有超过100层的材料,精心选择,精确地设计,以最大限度地提高EUV光的反射。


平坦度至关重要。镜子抛光到少于一个原子厚度的平滑度。为了将这一点透视,如果镜子是德国的大小,最高的“山脉”就会只有1毫米。

高Na EUV

ASML正在开发一个下一代EUV平台,将数值孔径从0.33纳增加到0.55('高NA')。该平台具有新颖的光学设计,阶段明显更快。它将使几何芯片缩放超出未来十年,提供比目前EUV平台更好的分辨率能力。高NA平台旨在启用多个未来节点,从3nm逻辑节点开始,然后是类似密度的内存节点。

更多关于Amanbext手机官网SML技术万博manbetx官网登录